Individuals may experience trauma as a result of systemic discrimination, such as racism.
Life circumstances associated with poverty and economic stress can also be traumatic, including economic and housing insecurity.
In addition to trauma experienced at an individual level, entire groups of people can experience trauma and pass the effects down through multiple generations. This is referred to as intergenerational trauma.
Research indicates that overt and covert experiences of discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, as well as experiencing economic disadvantage, are associated with showing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Adults and organizations should actively resist re-traumatizing children and families by addressing discrimination, promoting equity, and practicing cultural affirmation. Ways to do this include: